Boto López Luis


I began my scientific career working in Cellular and Developmental Biology at Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas (CSIC) where I developed my PhD. Thesis studying the epigenetic modification of Dictyostelium discoideum by sodium butyrate.

  After this period I worked in the sequenciation of regions of the gene cluster involved in biosynthesis of the actinorhodin antibiotic in Streptomyces coelicolor at the same institute

   During two years and one half I was working in the Research Department of the Pharmaceutical Company Antibioticos Farma as technical researcher involved in several topics (genetic engineering in antibiotic producer microrganisms, the expression of eukaryotic peptides with pharmacological interest in prokaryotic vectors).

  From 1991 I am working in this Museum. During nine years I was involved in the use of molecular tools for approach different problems in taxonomy, evolution, kinship and conservation involving different animal species, first as responsible of  the Molecular Techniques lab and then as Senior Researcher.

  I participated in several research projects in the last years and now, I am interested in the study of speciation mechanisms leading to the arose of evolutionary novelties (for instance hybridization, as massive horizontal gene transfer example) and in the study of the molecular basis of adaptation.


1.- Boto, L.; Cano, A.; Pestaña, A. (1982). Effects of n-Butyrate on Dictyostelium discoideum development. Biologie of the Cell 45, 99 (comunicación a congreso)

2- Pinilla, R.F.; Cano, A.; Boto, L.; Pestaña, A. (1984).Short term regulation by lysine of Ornithine decarboxylase activity in Dictyostelium discoideum. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.  119, 1141-1146.

 3.- Aragón, J.J.; Sánchez, V.; Boto, L. (1986). Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate in Dictyostelium discoideum. Independence of cyclic AMP production and inhibition of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. Eur. J. Biochem,  161, 757-761.

4.-Aragón, J. J.; Gómez, M. E.; Sánchez, V.; Boto, L. (1987). Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate in Dictyostelium discoideum: Inhibition of Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and regulation of its levels. Federation Proceedings 46, 1953 (comunicación a congreso)

5.- Boto, L.; Cano, A.; Pestaña, A. (1987).  Biochemical and morphological effects of n-butyrate on Dictyostelium discoideum development. Mol. Cell. Biochem.  74, 137-147.

6.-Fernandez-Moreno, M.A.: Martinez, E.; Boto,L., Hopwood, D.A: Malpartida, F.(1992). Nucleotide sequence and deduced functions of a set of co-transcribed genes of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) including the Polyketide Synthase for the antibiotic Actinorhodin. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 19278-19290:

7- Dopazo, H., Boto,L., Alberch, P. (1998). Mitochondrial DNA variability in viviparous and  ovoviviparous populations   of the urodele Salamandra salamandra.. J.Evol.Biol. 11, 365-378

8.-Martín-Piera, F.: Boto,L. (1999). A reapraisal of the "fracticornis-opacicollis " taxonomic complex of the genus Onthophagus Latreille using allozymes (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). J. Zool.Syst. and Evol. Res. 37, 75-84         

 9.-Veiga, J.P.: Boto, L. (2000). Low frequency of extra-pair fertilisations in house sparrows breeding at high density.  J.of Avian Biology 31, 237-244

10.- Moreno, J.; Boto, L.; Fargallo, J.A.; De León, A; Potti, J.(2000). Absence of extra-pair fertilisations in the Chinstrap Penguin Pygoscelis antartica. J. of Avian Biology 31, 580-583

 11.- Boto, L.; Doadrio, I. (2003)Polymorphic microsatellites in two different species of the genus Zoogoneticus Meek, 1902 (Goodeidae, Actinopterygii).. Mol. Ecol. Notes. 3, 70-72

 12.- Boto, L. (2006). A survey for available molecular markers to vertebrate species present in the Comunidad de Madrid. Graellsia  62 (special issue) 511-523

13.- Dominguez-Dominguez, O.; Boto, L.; Alda, F.; Perez-Ponce de León, G.; Doadrio, I. (2007). Human impacts on drainages of the Mesa Central, Mexico, and its genetic effects on an endangered fish, Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis. Conservation Biology 21, 168-180

14.- Boto, L. (2008). Memorial Pere Alberch: The Cradle of Evo Devo. Valencia 21-24 Mayo de 2008. Graellsia 64(2), 341-344

15.- Boto, L.; Doadrio, I.; Diogo, R. (2009). Prebiotic World, macroevolution, and Darwin´s theory: A new insight. Biology and Philosophy 24 , 119-128

16.- Boto, L. (2010). Horizontal gene transfer in evolution: Facts and challenges. Proc. R. Soc. B 277, 819-827

17.- Boto, L. (2010). Horizontal gene transfer in evolution. In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (ELS). John Wiley & Sons Ltd:Chichester. DOI:10.1002/9780470015902.a0022835

18.- Boto, L.; Domínguez-Domínguez, O.; Doadrio, I. (2011). Exploring the effect of microsatellite size homoplasy on reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships of picote splitfin Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis. J. Fish Biol. 78, 673-679

19.- Boto, L.; Cunha, C.; Doadrio, I. (2011). A polymorphic microsatellite from the Squalius alburnoides complex (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae) cloned by serendipity can be useful in genetic analysis of polyploids. Genet. Mol. Biol. 34, 524-528

20.- Boto, L., Martínez, J. L. (2011). Ecological and temporal constraints in the evolution of Bacterial genomes. Genes 2, 804-828

21.- Valdecasas, A.G.; Boto, L.; Correas, A. M. (2013). There is no common ground between Science and Religion. J. Biosciences  38, 181-187

22.- Boto, L. (2014). Horizontal gene transfer in the acquisition of new traits by metazoans. Proc. R. Soc. B 281:20132450

23.- Boto, L. (2015). Evolutionary change and phylogenetic relationships in light of horizontal gene transfer. J. Biosciences 40, 465-472

24.- Boto, L. (2015). Horizontal gene transfer in evolution . In: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (EOL). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Chichester DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0022835.pub2

25.- Boto, L. (2016). Accepting foreign genes. J. Mol. Evol. 82, 173-175

26.- Doadrio, I.; Valladolid, M.; Carmona, J. A.; Corona-Santiago, D. K.; Perea, S.; Cunha, C.; Boto, L. (2016). Sobre la presencia del complejo híbrido Squalius alburnoides (Steindachner, 1866) (Cyprinidae, Actinopterygii) en un sistema de cuevas situado en el sur de España. Actas del EspeleoMeeting Ciudad de Villacarrillo 9-15

27.- Boto, L. (2018). Are there really too many eukaryote LGTs? A Reply to William Martin. Bioessays 40, 1800001.

28.- Boto, L.; Pineda, M.; Pineda, R. (2019). Potential impacts of horizontal gene transfer on human health and physiology and how anthropogenic activity can affect it. FEBS J. 286, 3959-3967.


"Transferencia horizontal de genes: Implicaciones evolutivas y fisiológicas". Boto, L. and Pineda, R. (2019). Cuadernos de Innovación Docente (CID) Serie Biociencias, número 6. UCO Press


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